In other words, health is the greatest blessing of God. We realize how great a gift health is when we ourselves become ill. Many come to Dharani with many types of problems from birth. Due to which he and his family have to face various problems in later life. Sometimes these problems are solved, sometimes not.
When a child is born or grows up with a problem, the period of onset is generally divided into three periods, depending on when the problem started. Pre-natal problems, perinatal problems and post-natal problems. Today we will know about ‘Down syndrome’, one of the incurable problems of children’s pre-natal period.
Down syndrome is a special type of genetic condition. The structure of chromosomes of people born with Down syndrome is slightly different from that of normal people. British physician John Langdon Down first identified children with this problem in 1866, so it was named Down syndrome after him.
The structural unit of the human body is called a cell. And their heredity, behavior etc. are all determined through cellular DNA. This is why DNA is called the container and carrier of our heredity. That is, all our physical and mental characteristics, behavior, intelligence, appearance, height, skin color are all controlled by DNA. On the other hand, when there is an imbalance of DNA in the human body, various physical and mental defects occur, which we commonly call birth defects or genetic disorders. Down syndrome is one such genetic defect in human babies.
Each chromosome is made up of billions of DNA located in the cell. Each cell in the human body contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, half of which come from the child’s mother and the other half from the father. Each cell of the body has another chromosome (Trisomy 21) partially or completely associated with chromosome number 21. 21/3 or March 21 is celebrated as World Down Syndrome Day because chromosome number 21 has three. And mainly because of this extra chromosome, some special physical and mental defects can be observed in children with Down syndrome. Most Down syndrome sufferers can be easily identified as children with Down syndrome due to similarities in appearance or behavior.
At this stage we will discuss some common physical characteristics of children with Down syndrome. Some specific physical characteristics of Down children are noticeable; As such, their muscles are more relaxed than normal people. That is, the muscles of a normal person do not have the same strength as a person with Down syndrome. In many cases, the opposite is also observed. Many people have extra-tight muscles that interfere with their daily activities. People with Down syndrome are shorter than normal. Because of which the problem of sloppiness among them emerges prominently. In addition, due to this syndrome, instead of having a straight vision like normal people, in many cases, the corner of the eye is raised or the eye becomes cloudy. Due to this, the surrounding people cannot understand when they are looking at where they are talking. In addition, the nose is flattened compared to normal, the shape of the ears is small and the folds of the external ear or pinna are not properly, the tongue protrudes, uncontrollable salivation etc. symptoms are seen in people with Down syndrome.
This is about physical characteristics. Now let’s know what are the mental or behavioral problems of people with Down syndrome. A child with Down syndrome may not develop as cognitively or behaviorally as ten normal children with age. Their emotional development does not develop properly. As a result, they do not show excessive emotion towards anything around them or have any emotional feelings at all. It was seen that a very simple sound startled them and started crying. Again, many times they are the ones who ignore many fears or events like expressing feelings. That is, people with Down syndrome have several problems from the mental development or cognitive development area. However, in some cases, a small number of children with Down syndrome have abnormal IQs. In medical terms, they are called Exceptional Children.
To reduce the birth rate of children with Down syndrome, various organizations including WHO (World Health Organization) are doing various things including public awareness and treatment. In the developed world it is mandatory for doctors to educate every expectant mother about Down’s baby and other possible birth defects and tests to diagnose them. Since the risk of having a baby with Down syndrome increases with the age of the mother, medically discourages pregnancy at older ages, especially over thirty-five. Currently, public awareness campaigns about Down syndrome are being organized regularly in developing countries as well. Since Down syndrome is incurable but preventable before birth, preventable birth defects like Down’s should be included in textbooks to ensure the birth of healthy and talented children. Care for pregnant women should focus on the issue of birth defects in the unborn child.
One in every 500 to 700 children born in the world may be born with Down syndrome. About 6,000 Down babies are born in America each year. According to the report of the World Health Organization, 5,000 Down babies are born in our country every year or about 15 every day. So it is understood that the number of children with Down syndrome is not at all small. At present, autism and other disabilities are being worked on very vigorously in our country. Apart from various government projects, if everyone comes forward to create awareness from individual or institutional level, then only a healthy and beautiful future will be created for our next generation.
Author Sradhanjali Dasgupta
Consultant Psychologist, Speaker , Learning Developmental Coach, Teacher and trainer Miss. Sradhanjali Dasgupta has been extensively working in the field of Counselling and education for the past few years in several Clinics, Hospitals, NGOs and educational sectors. She also contributes her writings and blogs in various newspapers, magazines and e- magazines Her training and workshops are both for the corporate as well as for the educational sector and are geared up for learning and development,upgradation and capacity building. She have actively taken part in many debates
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